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Breast Cancer Screening Programs in 26 ICSN Countries, 2012: Organization, Policies, and Program Reach*

Region/Country Program Type1 Year Program Began Year in which 100% national screening was or will be achieved: Detection Methods in Routine Use2 Detection Methods being Evaluated for Possible Use Age Groups Covered Recommended Interval for Average Risk for Mammography Number of Women Screened (2010) Participation Rate (2010)
Age 40-49 Age 50+
Australia NS 1991 MM, DM 40-75+ 2 years 2 years data not available data not available
Canada NS 1988 MM, DM, CBE3 3-D Ultrasound 50-69 1 year4 2 years 196,187 47.3%
China NS 2009 MM, CBE, U DM, MRI, CT, T 40-59 3 years 3 years 1,200,000 data not available
Denmark S 1991 2010 DM T 50-69 NA 2 years 275,000 73.0%
Finland N 1987 DM 50-64 NA 2 years data not available 85.0%
France N 1989 2004 MM, DM, CBE DM, U 50-74 NA 2 years 2,343,980 52.3%
Iceland N 1987 1989 DM, CBE5 40-69 2 years 2 years 20,517 60.0%
Israel N 1997 2005 MM, DM T 50-74 NA 2 years 220,000 72.0%
Italy NS 2002 2007 MM, DM T 50-69 NA 2 years 1,340,311 60.5%
Japan NS 1977 MM, DM, CBE U 40-75+ 2 years 2 years 2,492,868 19.0%
Korea N 1999 2002 MM, DM DM 40-75+ 2 years 2 years 2,602,928 39.3%
Luxembourg N 1992 1992 DM 50-69 NA 2 years 14,586 64.0%
Netherlands N 1989 1997 MM, DM 50-74 NA 2 years 961,766 80.7%
New Zealand N 1998 1999 MM, DM 45-69 2 years 2 years 211,922 67.5%
Norway N 1996 2004 DM T 50-69 NA 2 years 199,818 76.0%
Poland N 2006 MM, DM 50-69 NA 2 years 985,364 39.0%
Portugal (Central Region) S 1990 DM 45-69 2 years 2 years 100,348 63.0%
Portugal (Alentejo Region) S 1997 DM 45-69 2 years 2 years 7,298 58.4%
Saudi Arabia S 2007 DM 40-64 6,200 19.0%
Spain (Catalonia) NS 1995 2003 MM, DM 50-69 NA 2 years 527,0007 65.0%
Spain (Navarra) NS 1990 DM 45-69 2 years 2 years 40,016 87.3%
Sweden S 1986 1996 MM, DM T 40-74 18 months 2 years 1,414,0007 70.0%
Switzerland NS 1999 MM, DM U 50-69 NA 2 years 60,700 48.2%
United Kingdom N 1988 1995 MM, DM 50-69 3 years 1,957,124 73.3%
United States6 O 1995 MM, DM, CBE MRI, CT, T 40-75+ 1-2 years 1-2 years 416,000 66.5%
Uruguay O 1990 2016 MM, CBE, U, BSE DM, MRI 40-69 2 years 1 year 352,000 data not available
*Data are from a survey of ICSN country representatives, conducted in 2012

1 Program Types:

N (National screening policy with national program implementation)
NS (National screening policy with state/provincial/regional screening program implementation)
S (State/Provincial/Regional screening and program implementation)
O (Other)

2 Detection Methods:

MM (screen-film mammography)
DM (digital mammography)
T (Tomosynthesis/3-D mammography)
CBE (clinical breast exam)
BSE (breast self-examination)
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
U (ultrasound)
CT (Computerized Tomographic Imaging)

3 Two of the 12 programs offer CBE or modified CBE in some facilities.

4 One province does screen the 40-49 age group

5 CBE only for those who request it or have suspicious symptoms

6 Data come from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium

7 Represents estimate